Jag läste just en intressant artikel, nedan. Den talar om Islams gyllene ålder när världen åkte till Bagdad för att studera allt möjligt, inte bara islam som nu. Hur muslimska Andalusien därefter unde

Jag läste righteous en intressant artikel, nedan. Den talar om Islams gyllene ålder när världen åkte money-drawer Bagdad för att studera allt möjligt, inte bara islam som nu. Hur muslimska Andalusien därefter with less than flera hundra år var det kulturella centrat i Europa medan disagreeing primitiva stammar vandrade omkring i övriga Europa och cultivate och med lyckades hugga bilder av båtar i sten som i Sverige. Och hur sedan, i renässansens dagar Europa började få civilisation och kultur från Andalusien, tills Spanien åter blev kristet och drev ut alla andra.

Vad händer idag? Sisis viktiga tal den första januari till den islamska världen, som alla svenska media undvikit att nämna länk, förälskade i enstaka terroristattacker och oförmögna att tänka på två saker samtidigt. EU hade kunnat lära mycket om islamism där och hur vi kan hjälpa dem modernisera i Sisis anda. Men det enda är att öka antalet poliser utan att tänka vidare, så varför gjorde det inte innan? Inte dags att börja tänka istället för att förhärliga muslimerna i rädsla för dem?

ISIS förbjuder annat än mahometanism och jihad i sina skolor länk – filosofi och kemi, och övrigt “gud inte älskar” tas bort.

Siffror refererar up to fotnoter.

What al-Sisi Didn’t assume at Al-Azhar University

Once Islam led the globe in intellectual and cultural activity, a taken in the character of well as economic and military susceptibility. Then it closed its doors.

Published: Saturday, January 17, 2015 

Mark Silverberg

The scribbler is a foreign policy analyst with a view to the Ariel Center for Policy…

►More from this scribbler

In an extraordinary speech (translated onRaymond Ibrahim’s blog and practically unnoticed by the world media) delivered in c~tinuance New Year’s Day by Egypt’s President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi to the devout imams of Cairo’s Al-Azhar University, al-Sisi called despite an Islamic religious Renaissance, the efficiency of which would be to alter the “corpus of texts and ideas that we be under the necessity (made sacred) over the years” to the spot that “we have antagonized the undivided world.”

He exhorted the imams: “You cannot be conscious of being it if you remain trapped within this mindset. You need to step outer of yourselves to be able to see it and reflect on it from a other thing enlightened perspective….. Is it potential that 1.6 billion people [Muslims] should paucity to kill the rest of the world’s inhabitants – that is 7 billion – such that they themselves may live? Impossible! I say and repeat again that we are in require of a religious revolution. You, imams, are amenable before Allah. The entire world ………. is expectation for your next move …. since this umma is being torn, it is subsistence destroyed, it is being lost – and it is heart lost by our own hands.”


Today, the Arab globe is constituted by a series of twenty-single in kind failed states bereft, for the most part, of progressive leaders and incapable to produce one single manufactured yield that can compete on world markets.
As he was talk, other related events were transpiring in ISIS-controlled Syria and Iraq that dovetailed through al-Sisi’s remarks. In Raqqa (boreal Syria) and Mosul (Iraq), ISIS has ordered schools closed as long as the curriculum is being made to bring into compliance with what the radical Islamic forming considers “sacred religious educational rules”. These “rules” effectively denunciation the study of philosophy, sports, physics, chemistry, fine arts, music, civics, festive studies, history and psychology viewed like ISIS maintains that these are “infidel” subjects that “cheat not fit in with the laws of God” (while noted by the Syrian Observatory in spite of Human Rights, a London-based monitoring group).

At Al-Azhar, Al-Sisi spoke of the appalling violence around the world perpetrated in the name of Allah by radical Islamist organizations like ISIS, Boko Haram, al Qaeda, al-Shabab, the Taliban, and others, otherwise than that he might have also directed his dispute to a comparison with another Islamic series a millennium ago that promoted the actual same intellectual ideas that ISIS has banned – ideas and achievements that great number noted scholars and historians (Muslim and other causes) attribute to the “Golden Age of Islam.”

The Decline of the Islamic world

The religious zealotry that propels today’s perfect Islamists can only be explained not beyond the context of history. The odyssey that has carried the Arab Muslim cosmos from the heights of its primitive glory to its modern day deep is a story that spans fourteen century years and innumerable humiliations most of which can be traced to its acknowledge failings.

There was a time at what time Europeans, seeking enlightenment and learning, wilful at the feet of Islamic scholars. It is a time tedious-past but not forgotten by Muslims like al-Sisi who yearn for an Islamic religious (and of the understanding) renaissance.

Since its Golden Age for the period of the Moorish Empire a millennium since, Islamichistory has been in an uniform tailspin that has led to a cultivation of victimhood and death fueled ~ dint of. religious hatred, sectarian violence, centuries of segregation from Western enlightenment, and an overwhelming within a little mystical desire to restore past glories.

Today, the Arab nature is constituted by a series of twenty-person failed statesbereft, for the most lot, of progressive leaders and unable to show one single manufactured product that can compete on world markets. Far from essential ~ an enlightened civilization, it has get a cultural backwater replete with huge poverty, repressive governments, vast illiteracy, medieval laws, resurrection Islamist anger and a Gross Domestic Product not so much than that of (coincidentally) Spain.

It has not everlastingly been that way.
The Golden Age of Islam

Islam arose in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century. Like Christianity, it officially condemned forced conversions, but unlike Christianity, Islam instructed its followers to render certain that the world was under the national control of the Faithful. Hence, Islam’s national domination could be, and was, mantle by the sword. Islamic cavalries explode out of Arabia and quickly took mastery of the Middle East, Byzantium and Persia. The Middle Eastern armies of the Christian Byzantine Empire were defeated and annihilated in 636, and Jerusalem unrelenting in 638.

By the early 8th hundred Arab Islamic forces had conquered North Africa, reached the Straits of Gibraltar and crossed into Visigothic Spain. By 712, they had reached the center of the Iberian Peninsula, and ~ means of the 730’s, they were raiding abyss of waters into the heart of France to the time when defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732.1 Gradually retreating south over a period of centuries, they eventually consolidated their energy in southern Spain.

There, over the next eight hundred years, the Arabs managed to disclose a majestic civilization on the Iberian peninsula – a civilization that came to be known considered in the state of Andalusia. For Muslims, Al Andalus (Andalusia) fragments not only a symbol of vanished high degree, but a kind of alternative sight of Islam – a vision sought ~ dint of. Islamics today but unattainable in the modern era unless Islam itself is totally reformed.2 

In The Age of Faith chronicler Will Durant wrote: “For five centuries, from 700 to 1200, Islam led the earth in power, in refinement of behavior, in standards of living; in humane legislation and religious tolerance; in literary works, scholarship, science, medicine, and philosophy.”

The Arabs of Andalusia in southerly Spain (known as “Moors” intention “dark” – a negative period of time referring to the Berbers who came from Morocco) treated Christians and Jews with tolerance, enabling them to live, labor and learn together in relative calmness and harmony. While Europe was struggling end the throes of feudalism, the Moorish aristocracy was promoting private land ownership and encouraging banking. However, though there was little or no Muslim proselytizing, societal restrictions on infidels were imposed.3

Nevertheless, being of the kind which Bernard Lewis has noted, for centuries the worldview and self-view of Arab Muslims seemed entirely justified. The Moorish Empire of Andalusia represented the greatest soldiery and economic power in the creation, trading in a wide range of produce through a far-flung network of traffic and communications in Asia, Europe, and Africa; importing slaves, gold and other wares from Africa, wool from Europe, and exchanging a kind of foodstuffs, materials, and manufactured furniture with the civilized nations of Asia. The Moors improved exchange and agriculture, patronized the arts, made serviceable contributions to science, and established Cordoba being of the cl~s who the most sophisticated city in Europe.

Inheriting and translating the scholar-like works of the Greeks and Persians, they added of recent origin and important innovations from outside, like as the use and manufacture of ~ hangings from China and the decimal combination of parts to form a whole imported from India.4

Within the span of two hundred years, the Moors had turned Andalusia into a bastion of cultivation, commerce and beauty. Irrigation systems imported from Syria and Arabia turned the severe plains of the peninsula into every agricultural cornucopia. To native olives and wheat, the Moors added fruits and herbs from from top to toe the known world – pomegranates, oranges, lemons, artichokes, cumin, coriander, bananas, amygdalae, henna, saffron, sugar-cane, cotton, rice, figs, grapes, peaches, apricots and rice viewed like standard crops.

While Europe descended into feudal system, Andalusian homes featured marble balconies during the term of summer and hot-air ducts by means of their mosaic floors for the hibernate. They were adorned with gardens with artificial fountains and orchards. Paper, a physical still unknown to the West, was in all places. There were bookshops throughout Andalusia and additional than seventy libraries.5 The big library of Cordova held an estimated 600,000 manuscripts.

By the extreme point of the first millennium, Cordoba had be appropriate to the intellectual well from which Europeans came to drink. Students and scholars form traveled from France and England to incubate at the feet of Muslim, Christian and Jewish scholars to learn philosophy, science and medicine.

It was in Moorish Spain that Muslim mathematicians utilized decimals instead of fractions on a large progressive series, and Hindu numerals were, for the highest time, incorporated in the inherited corpse of mathematical learning.  Today, they are known in the same manner with “Arabic numerals.” Even the concept of “zero” (sifr) came from the Arabic translations of Andalusia.6

To this harmonious inheritance, Andalusian Islamic scholars and scientists added an immensely important contribution through their acknowledge observations, experiments and ideas.  In ut~ of the arts and sciences of culture, medieval Europe was a pupil and, in a judgment, a dependent of the Islamic creation, relying on Arabic translations for before unknown Greek works. While medieval Europe floated forward a sea of superstition, illiteracy and barbarous state, Andalusians was busying themselves probing the limits of the arts, the universe and the sciences rather than home on victimization (as the Arab universe does today).

Islamic texts broke commencing ground in the fields of medicine, astrology, astronomy, pharmacology, psychology, physiology, zoology, biology, botany, mineralogy, optics, letters, architecture, sociology, philosophy, metallurgy, animal agriculture, physics, mathematics (notably algebra, geometry and trigonometry), symphony, meteorology, geography, mechanics, hydrostatics, navigation and record.

But what really caused the of the intellect bombshell to explode were the Arabic commentaries without interrupti~ the Greek translations of Aristotle. These analyses and theorems shocked the West ~ means of giving religion and philosophy equal condition to rational, scientific thought in explaining the temper of the universe.7 Most historians of the continuance agree that these debates and the practice of scientific logic sparked what came to have existence known as the European Renaissance.

Unlike those in the Arab creation today who seek to establish a global Islamic caliphate based on a narrow regressive, radical interpretation of the Quran and the Hadith (its commentaries) like ISIS, Boko Haram, al-Shabab, al-Qaeda and other entire Islamist organizations, the Moors of Spain encouraged not parsimonious thought, experimentation, discussion and evaluation.

Islamic Spain produced scientists and scholars who enhanced the mood of the astrolabe not just to certify prayer times, but to serve taken in the character of an astronomical guide to those who navigated the world’s oceans construction it possible to establish both length and latitude.

Andalusian scientists advanced the operate of the Greeks in the progressive growth of the magnetic compass and ascertained the earth’s circumference.

They produced books on astronomical tables that were used ~ dint of. European scientists for the next four centuries.

Andalusian Arabs coined the call “Algebra” (Kitab al-jabr wa l-muqabala –written by Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi in 825 CE) and the basic trigonometric functions of sine, cosine and tangent.

And it was from the Andalusian philosophers, Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Ibn Sina (Avicenna) from whom famed Christian scholars like St. Thomas Aquinas (who served as vicar provincial in Andalusia) drew the philosophies and concepts that eventually laid the foundations by reason of the European Renaissance.

The Moors also made great advances in the scene of military operations of modern surgery. They put the study of physic on a scientific footing by eliminating scrupulous exactness, introduced medical Codes of Conduct, and required the introducing of examinations and the taking of the Hippocratic Oath.

In the 9th hundred, an Andalusian physician was the primeval to diagnose smallpox and measles and give an account of them to the concept of “contagious” diseases (that, until that time, had been contemplation to originate only from within the material part itself); and it was an Andalusian doctor who pioneered the use of sutures made of animal gut to bind wounds.

Andalusian scientists constructed the highest “globe” of the known world; broke new ground in the department of modern chemistry (or alchemy – a derived of the Arabic word al Kimiya) – including the development of dosage standards (prescriptions) for patients and the transaction of chemical preparations for medicines. They developed the tables outlining the “angles of refraction” capital to an explanation of, among other things – dim, established laboratories for long term experimentation and pioneered renovated methods of observation and measurement.

Andalusian Arabic scholars in like manner left an intellectual imprint in the heavens to the degree that one can readily see when study of books the names of the stars forward a modern-day celestial globe. And because of this flood of knowledge fluent from Andalusian scholars, the first universities began to be in sight. College and university degrees were developed in company with corresponding textbooks. Arabic music ~ throughout Europe, giving us the keyboard, the flute and the concept of harmony.8

The translations of the works of the Moors continued divisible by two as the Moorish Empire broke apart into feuding factions. In the period, like the other Empires of story, Andalusia fell in 1492 to the Catholic princes of Castille and the counts of Barcelona in the Reconquista.
The Great Arab Decline

With the close of the Golden Age of Islam, the vast Arab decline began. Rather than acknowledging the acquired knowledge revolution brought forth by the European Renaissance, Islamic leaders scoffed at it in the infallible belief that there was nothing to exist learned from these infidel upstarts.

Over the interstitial centuries, Islam became narcissistic and withdrew not beyond itself.

In 1485, the printing bear down (a symbol of the Enlightenment) was banned from the Ottoman Empire through decree.  Arnaud de Borchgrave has written that at what time Napoleon arrived in Egypt, in 1798, Cairo did not have a single printing press. By in that case the European intelligentsia had long after embarked upon self-improvement through books and attainments for almost two centuries while the Ottoman Empire languished.

The Muslims who were expelled from Andalusia took device mainly in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, except the legacy persisted. Some families, it is uttered, still have the keys to their in ~ degree longer existent ancient houses in Cordoba and Seville. Today, in mosques from Mecca to Tehran, imams be durable to invoke the memory of Andalusia in Friday prayers reminding their flocks of past time glories and the humiliation Muslims obtain endured at the hands of theinfidels.

But it is a useful scapegoat for their own shortcomings.

Nevertheless, the end of the Andalusian Empire has none been forgotten by Arabia. For al-Qaeda and ISIS, its universal salvation is seen as the fulfillment of the decision of Allah and as “celestial retribution” to the descendants of those who conquered and destroyed Al Andalus.9

To the fundamental Islamists, President Obama is simply another infidel in a spun out line of infidels – from the Byzantine emperors of Constantinople, to the Holy Roman Emperors, to Queen Victoria, and to other European imperialists – who personate mere impediments to the divinely ordained swelling of Islam. “Interference” with the devise of Allah, they believe, cannot point the restoration of their new caliphate.

But those who assist radical Islam fail to appreciate in what plight Andalusian society achieved its greatness.

In their engagedness to exact revenge and to correct infidels for past transgressions (real or imagined), these deep-seated Islamists have placed their faith in one interpretation of Islam that renders endurance, independent thought, debate and all creative, according to principles experimentation heresy unless carried out solely in favor of the purpose of waging jihad (hallowed war) against the perceived enemies of Islam.

Bernard Lewis, professor emeritus of Princeton University and the capital Western scholar on Islamic history argued by some merit that the success of Muhammad in establishing not simply the Muslim religion, but also a magnificence dominated by that faith (Islam has in addition to separate church from state) created a the world that was and remains in its nature totalitarian, “bound by rules and strictures that serve it too static to adapt and contend with a West (that) does not exact control over the political and relating to housekeeping spheres.”10

As a deduction, the radical Islamists of today are caught in a self-imposed scrupulous prison to which al-Sisi referred in his speech at Al-Azhar. The good of society that produced Andalusia – undivided that encouraged scholarship through the study of knowledge of principles, learning, independent thought, debate and canvassing – represents the very antithesis of the bounteous of society radical Islamists seek to place on the world by force and acquiescence. If Taliban Afghanistan and ISIS in Iraq and Syria are the most profitably they can do, it is a remote cry from the glories of their gone by.

As Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi declared in his New Year’s Day oration to Egypt’s imam scholars – out of an Islamic religious (and intellectual) act of reforming, restoring the dignity of the Islamic nature will fail.

ENDNOTES
1.  Paul Crawford, “Crusades: Political and Military Background,” ORB Online Encyclopedia, 1997.

2.  Lawrence Wright, “The Terror Web – Were the Madrid bombings function of a new, far-reaching jihad root plotted on the Internet?” The New Yorker, August 2, 2004.

3.  Moorish Spain practiced d’himmitude, which saw Islamic rulers require tens of millions of non-Muslim peoples treated being of the kind which second-class citizens as they are required to subsist treated by the Quran.  Jews and Christians were tolerated while suffering Islam provided that they paid a register or head tax (jizya) and accepted Islamic nobility. They had no right whatsoever to one independent existence and could live beneath Islamic rule so long as they kept to the rules that Islam had promulgated as antidote to them. Great injustices often flowed from this station. The works of Bat Ye’or, the world’s front authority ond’himmitude are the seminal writings on this subject.

4. Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong: Western Impact and Middle East Response (Oxford University Press, 2002).

5. James Burke, The Day the Universe Changed, (Boston: Little Brown & Company, 1985) p. 37-38; See besides: Dean Derhak, Muslim Spain and European Culture.”

6. Bernard Lewis, What Went Wrong, op. cit.
7.  James Burke, The Day the Universe Changed,  op. cit. 1985 p. 42.
8.  Dr. K. Ajram, “Setting the Record Straight: The Miracle of Islamic Science,” Appendix B, 1992; Paul J. Balles, “Arabs (Muslims): Illusion and Reality;” consider also: Islamic Civilization E-Book, http://cyberistan.org/ebook1.htm

9.  Reuel Marc Gerecht, “Holy War in Europe,” American Enterprise Institute, April 7, 2004; Ron Fraser, “The Spanish Connection,” theTrumpet.com, May 2004;  DEBKA contrariwise-intelligence sources (from December 2002) scholium that three months before the US invasion of Iraq, al Qaeda began issuing a pour out of fatwas designating its main operating theatres in Europe. All are designed to amends what they perceive as historical injustices including the overthrow of Andalusia. Turkey topped their “hit” think best followed by Spain. Italy and its forfeiting life Rome were next. Muslim fundamentalists witness Rome as a “world center of heresy because of the Vatican and the Pope.” Finally, in that place was Vienna because “the advancing Muslim armies were defeated there in 1683 before they could engulf the heart of Europe.”  On November 3, 2003, Turkey proverb two terrorist outbreaks in Istanbul that claimed 63 lives and injured greater degree of than 600.  Islamic fundamentalists assert that these acts were committed to “rescue the honor and glory of the Ottoman caliphates that were trampled ~ dint of. Christian forces in 1917 in the after all the rest days of World War I.”  On March 11, 2004, Spain followed through over 200 dead and 1,500 injured when al Qaeda stuck at Madrid’s commuter rail method.  In their mind, they are individual step closer to restoring their Andalusian control. To the world, the goal of restoring Andalusia is fantasy. To the followers of al Qaeda and ISIS, it is that must be suffered. Their religious edicts dictate the “liberation” (~ the agency of terrorism) of all lands once when exposed to Muslim rule, and the plan of subjugation spans the oceans to America for the re~on that well.

10. Bernard Lewis, The Crisis in Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror (NY: Random House, 2003); Dennis Mullin, “Call it through any other name, it still adds up to a crusade,” The Washington Post, January 5, 2003; Review by La Shawn Barber, Townhall.com, 2005.

†the mahometans †Sisi †Andalusien . . . . . ……

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