Jesus’ Death: The Physical Cause

Over the years, you may be in actual possession of heard or read of various potential physical causes for Jesus’ death at His crucifixion.  Such like: a broken heart, a spear lunge in His side, multiple wounds, suffocation, exposure, heart failure, exhaustion, poison.  The missionary Paul affirmed in 1Co.15:3, “Christ died on this account that our sins according to the scriptures.”  In so doing, Jesus fulfilled Bible prophecies near His death.  We’ll scrutinize what the scriptures reflect in regards to physical factors associated with His end of life.

Ancient historians too have verified that Jesus lived and died.  Jewish historian Josephus’ _Antiquities_ 18:3:3 “Jesus, a enlightened man…Pilate, upon hearing him accused ~ dint of. men of the highest standing among us, had condemned him to be crucified.”  In 117 AD the Roman chronicler Tacitus wrote in _Annals_ 15.44, “Christus, from whom the denominate (Christian) had its origin, suffered the farthest penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of unit of our procurators, Pontius Pilate.”  Jesus was a known historical outline.

Crucifixion was a slow, painful, humiliating achievement in which the sufferer is nailed or tied to a full wooden cross or pole, and left to depend until dead.  It could take brace or more days for the sacrifice to die!  Crucifixion was used ~ the agency of the Persians around 500 BC, and “perfected” ~ the agency of the Romans around 100 BC.  It was their habitual method for executing condemned criminals, rebels and traitors.

Flogging or scourging would usually head the crucifixion.  The whip (flagrum) consisted of leather strips, by pieces of bone, metal and flint tied in.  It could tear out out chunks of flesh, exposing muscles & bones.  David prophesied of Jesus in Ps.22:17, “I be able to count all My bones. People stare at Me.”  The dupe would then carry or drag the crossbeam to the something done site where the stake was in the cause.

According to the scriptures, Is.52:14: “His feature was marred more than any body.”  Is.53:5 “He was wounded on this account that our transgressions. And by His scourging we are healed.”  Jesus is at the Jewish occult priest residence in Mk.14:65: “Some began to pierce at Him, to beat Him with their fists.”  Mk.15:15-20 “Roman soldiers utter a crown of thorns on Him. And they kept flogging His head with a staff and mocked Him.”  Mt.27:26 “Pilate…Having scourged Jesus, handed Him upward of to be crucified.”  Bleeding from multiple wounds, the crucifixion prey was nailed up.  Ps.22:16 “They pierced My hands and My feet.”

The Roman victim might remain on the cross toward days, slowly dying in agony.  But not Jesus and the pair criminals crucified with Him that daytime in Judea (Lk.23:38-43)!  De.21:22-23 “If a person commits a capital offense and is hanged without interrupti~ a tree, his body shall not rest all night on the tree. You shall hide beyond remembrance him the same day; that the country be not defiled.”  A rotting corse wasn’t to be left suspension in the air for birds to gnaw into.  So the Jewish leaders who framed Jesus wanted His (dead) visible form taken down before night.

Let’s at once read what happened to Jesus under which circumstances He was hanging on the sour, before His death that same lifetime.  The scriptures don’t arrange complete autopsy results, but do specify the physical cause of death.

Immediately anterior to hanging Him up, Mark’s history of christ says they tried to give Jesus a drink of wine associated with myrrh.  Mk.15:22-25 “They offered Him wine (oinos Strongs #3631) promiscuous with myrrh (smurnizo #4669), but He didn’t take it.”  The name oinos/wine 3631 occurs 33 general condition of affairs in the New Testament (NT).  Pure myrrh (smurna 4666) is a grievous yellowish tree resin.  In the NT, the christen myrrh #4666 occurs only in Mt.2:11 & Jn.19:39.  The hotch-potch or tincture of myrrh #4669 only occurs here in Mk.15:23.

What was the temper of this drink (which Jesus initially refused)?  Some ruminate it was a mild painkiller supposing by charitable women (Sanh 43a, ref Pr.31:6).  Others believe it was a medicated wine or anaesthetic to dull the pain, or contemplative.  Would the Roman soldiers be the subject of offered this mixture out of commiseration?  The late theologian and Anchor Bible commentator Raymond Brown: “Neither in real existence nor in what we know of ancient pharmacology does myrrh serve as a anodyne. Perhaps the myrrh was only a flavoring and the wine used was thinking to numb.”  Myrrh would subdue or alter the taste of the combine.

Matthew’s parallel account identifies there is another ingredient in this mix!  Mt.27:33-35 “They gave him snarling wine (oxos #3690) to drink blended with gall (chole’ #5521). After tasting it, He wouldn’t drink it.” The expression oxos 3690 occurs in six NT verses, all relative to Jesus’ crucifixion (Mt.27:34, 48, Mk.15:36, Lk.23:36, Jn.19:29-30.)  Oxos/pricked wine 3690 was a variety, attribute or adulteration of 3631 oinos/wine, of that kind as acrid wine or vinegar.  Cheap wine or acid was a common beverage and ~ means of itself wouldn’t be rejected at the same time that undrinkable.  (However, vinegar is a stimulant, not a sedative!)  So Matthew chose to appliance the Greek term oxos for this inter~, which had standard wine/oinos and wet as a base.

Combining the accounts of Mark & Matthew…the drink Jesus initially refused was wine mingled with myrrh and gall.  The Greek spell rendered gall is chole 5521.  In the NT, this call occurs only here in Mt.27:34 and in Ac.8:23, to which place the apostle Peter said to Simon the enchanter: “I see you are in the exasperate (5521) of bitterness and the fastening of iniquity.”  A small in number translations read, “…you are poisoned ~ the agency of bitterness.”  Ac.8:23 Peoples NT Notes: “The plague of reptiles was considered by the ancients the originator of their venom.” Robertson’s Commentary: “Peter describes Simon’s immolate as poison and a chain.”  Poison!?  The period of time often used in ancient Greek verse for poison is…chole/(gall) 5521!

We understand in Mt.27:34 that Jesus didn’t drink the harass mixture then.  Brink’s Commentary: “In the LXX (chole/sting) has the meaning of poison in Jb.20:14, Ps.69:21. It is net that offering wine mingled with canker must here be regarded as each act of mercy.”  The Mt.27:34 limit refs Ps.69:21, to have ~ing fulfilled by Jesus.  However, that Old Testament (OT) portent won’t be fulfilled until Mt.27:48.

While the spell chole/gall is in the Greek NT & LXX, the answering. OT Hebrew term is rosh 07219.  Strongs _Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary_ describes rosh 07219: “A venomous plant. Poison even of serpents.”  Ps.69:21 “They gave me bile (roshe 07219) for My food, and in My hunger vinegar to drink.”  Jewish Publication Society: “They entice poison in my food.”  ISV & NET Bible: “They oblige bitter poison into my food.”  Targum Psalms “They gave me bitter gall & poison.”  Cambridge Commentary Ps.69:21: “The Heb word rosh, rendered gall, LXX χολή (chole), denotes more bitter and poisonous plant.”  The Greek LXX has: “They gave Me exasperate (chole 5521) for my food, and made Me drink vinegar for My thirst.”  Again, this Greek period of time chole 5521 is the term in Mt.27:34, offered to Jesus!

The Hebrew word rosh 07219, translated as gall or pest in Ps.69:21 (the divination Jesus will fulfill), occurs in 11 other OT poetry.  Following are selected verses in the place of comparison and a frame of allusion:  De.32:32 “Their vine is from the vine of Sodom and the fields of Gomorrah. Their grapes are mar (rosh 07219).”  Ho.10:4 “Judgment springs up in the manner that poisonous weeds/hemlock (07219) in the furrows of the realm.”  Am.6:12 “You obtain turned justice into poison (07219), and the effect of righteousness into wormwood.”    Je.8:14 “Our God has given us venom/gall (07219) water to drink, inasmuch as we have sinned against Him.”  Jb.20:14-16 “He sucks the noxious influence (07219) of cobras; the viper’s language slays him.”  Here the Greek LXX period of time for poison or gall is chole 5521…as in the Greek of Mt.27:34!

Let’s return to the gospels for Jesus’ foretelling fulfillment (“according to the scriptures”, 1Co.15:3).

We be studious in books in Mk.15:23 & Mt.27:34 whither Jesus tasted but refused to drink the wine/unpleasant wine (oinos/ oxos) mingled with myrrh and spite/poison (chole 5521).  Again, chole is the entitle often used for poison in not modern. Greek poetry.  Why didn’t Jesus regular drink it then and avoid hours of severe pain on the cross?

Ac.3:18 “The things God foretold by the mouth of all the prophets, that His Christ be required to suffer, He has fulfilled.”  Jesus be bound to suffer as prophesied!  He desired to tolerate the full burden consciously with His senses.  It was prophesied His hands & feet must be pierced, Ps.22:14-17: “All My bones are loudly of joint.”  His bones (shoulders, elbows) fustiness slip out of joint hanging without interrupti~ the cross, before He dies.

Yet a part most unusual occurred from 12-3pm!  Mt.27:45 “From the sixth hour there was darkness over all the ground until the ninth hour.”  Unexpected ignorance! (Am.8:9?)  We peruse in De.21:23 that a material part was not to remain hanging from dark!  Jsh.8:29 “He hanged the monarch of Ai on a tree till evening; and at sunset Joshua commanded and they took his carcass down from the tree.” (Also Jsh.10:27.)  This want of knowledge phenomenon at noon would cause confusion…it was mute dark from 2-3pm!  Jesus and the two malefactors are hanging on crosses in the discouraging!  What were the Jewish leaders/onlookers judgment then?

Around 3pm Jesus does drink the austere wine.  (He’d refused it in Mt.27:34.)  Mt.27:46-48 “Jesus cried with a loud voice, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani.’ And some who heard it said, ‘This personage is calling for Elijah.’ And immediately one of them ran and filled it by sour wine (oxos 3690) and gave Him a drink. The rest of them reported, ‘Let’s see if Elijah disposition save Him.’ And Jesus cried extinguished again with a loud voice and yielded up His turn of mind.”  Jn.19:28-30 “Jesus, in canon that the scripture be fulfilled (confine Ps.69:21), said, ‘I aridity.’ They put a sponge filled of the sour wine (oxos 3690) to His grimace. When Jesus had received the coagulated wine, He said, ‘It is perfected.’ He bowed His head and gave up His vivacity.”

At 3pm, Jesus drank the morose wine mixture of vinegar, myrrh, gall…and died pop!  They mocked Jesus about whether Elijah would “save” Him…immediately in the pattern of He drank that gall/poison wine!  Mk.15:36-37 “Someone ran and filled a obliterate with sour wine (oxos 3690) and gave Him a drink. ‘Let us look to if Elijah will come take Him etc..’ Jesus uttered a loud weep and breathed His last.”

A adult male suffocating due to hanging bodyweight, or pain a heart attack, doesn’t howl out loudly, as Jesus did.  A character having a heart attack is comparatively quiet.  Matthew, Mark, and John the whole of show Jesus dying right after He drank the olio in the sponge!  It was a potent poison.

Jesus was in good natural condition from walking throughout the Land.  He wasn’t diseased, having a healthy body and immune classification.  Jesus never ate any impure carcinogenic creatures, disease-carriers.

Mk.15:42-46 “Pilate was amazed to learn that Jesus had already died, in the way that he summoned the centurion to beseech if He was in fact dead. When he knew it from the centurion, he gave the visible form to Joseph.”  Pilate was well conscious of the extent of Jesus’ scourging.  Jn.19:1-5 that peep of day Pilate had beheld how much Jesus was common-place.  Yet Pilate still wondered why Jesus was so soon dead…He’d been put ~ the cross only six hours!  The Romans were experts at rack & crucifixion.  It usually took a employee days to die…a cruel, delaying, exhausting death!  Yet the Son of God died in the presence of the two criminals beside Him died!

Again, obscurity had set in at noon.  The sabbath normally would break ground near 6pm.  The three victims grape-juice be taken down ASAP.  Jn.19:31 “The Jewish leaders asked Pilate to be delivered of their legs broken and their bodies taken down.”  To hasten death, the Romans would infringe the legs of crucifixion victims with a club.  Hanging on the touchy, they’d then be unable to shove themselves up with their legs to unfold their slumping chest cavity to have a respite.  They’d quickly suffocate.  Jn.19:32-33 “So the soldiers broke the legs of the sum of ~ units men crucified with Jesus. But then they came to Jesus and maxim He was already dead, they didn’t make docile His legs.”  No need…Jesus had been in dominion government of His circumstances!

Jn.19:34 “One of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately relations and water came out.”   Reading Jn.19:34 in besides than 20 translations, none of them affirmation “had pierced”, as if the shoot thrust caused His death.  Jesus died from the spoiled wine back in v.30, earlier to the confirmation of v.34.

Jn.19:35-38 Jesus’ legs wouldn’t have existence broken! (ref Ps.34:20, Ex.12:46.)  Zec.12:10 the penetrating must occur!  To confirm a prey was dead before releasing the body, the Romans customarily inflicted a shoot wound through the right side of the emotion.  The outer sac of the emotion (pericardium) contains blood and water.  Jesus’ blade was shed!  Mk.15:39-45 Before Pilate could give Jesus’ body to Joseph, Pilate sent a centurion to verify Jesus was dead.  His edge was then pierced, perhaps by the centurion’s instruct.

[ Sidebar: Here is one more crucifixion note.  It’s the earliest existing unauthentic account of Jesus’ Passion.  A fraction of the Lost Gospel of Peter was discovered in 1886 in each Egyptian tomb.  It was referred to ~ the agency of Serapion bishop of Antioch in 190 AD, Origen in 253, Eusebius tournure of Caesarea in 300.  Theodoret in 455 AD said the Nazarenes (Ac.24:5) used it, and beforehand Justin Martyr also mentioned it.  Dr. D.H. Stanton wrote in _Journal of Theological Studies_: “The finale with which we are confronted is that the Gospel of Peter once held a place of honor.”

GosPet.1:15-19 “Now it was noonday, and blindness prevailed over all Judea; they were troubled in some agony lest the sun should be delivered of set, for that He yet lived. For it is written instead of them that the sun should not fixed on him that had been slain. And some of them said, Give ye Him to drink tease with vinegar; and they mingled it (Mt.27:34) and gave Him to drink; and they fulfilled altogether things and accomplished their sins on the subject of their own heads.  And manifold went about with lamps, supposing that it was ignorance; and some fell.  And the Lord cried in a clear voice saying: My power, my power, thou hast forsaken Me.  And which time He had so said, He was taken up.”

Of point of compass, we don’t give the Lost Gospel of Peter the like credence as the four canonical gospels.  Nonetheless, GosPet does point out what some Christians believed regarding Jesus’ crucifixion inside of 100 years afterwards.  It contains a scarcely any details not in our gospel Passion accounts.

Dominic Crossan _The Birth of Christianity_: “That is exactly the state of the Gospel of Peter, at which place Jesus is given a poisoned drink to polish the crucifixion speedily so that His corpse can be removed before dark.”  Another researcher observed: “In the Gospel of Peter it was noxious influence and vinegar both in a drink.”  Prior to the the appearing of the lord of firearms, the most convenient often met with means of taking a person’s life was envenom (ref Mk.16:18). ]

Jn.19:4-12 Pilate intention Jesus was unjustly accused.  Mt.27:17-25 His wife had a sleeping vision about the righteous Jesus, and in such a manner told her husband.  Pilate wanted Him released, and “washed his hands” of culpability.  Perhaps Pilate, despite other wrongs noted by historians, desired to ease or abbreviate Jesus’ suffering?

Jesus’ total time steady the cross was comparatively short.  Some critics don’t conceive He really died.  But Jesus did die, according to the the holy scriptures.  Peter said of Jesus, Ac.2:23 “This Man, delivered extremely by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a snappish by the hands of godless men and set Him to death.”  Yet God isn’t a masochist or sadist.  Jesus needn’t subsist on the cross any longer than to effect His Father’s will and fulfill quite prophecies about Him…including the Ps.69:21 rancor/poison.

Mt.26:42 “My Father, whether this cannot pass away unless I drink it, Thy desire be done.” Also see Jn.18:11.  Jesus drank it…and died.  To the exceedingly end, Jesus, not His tormentors, was in regulate of His life.  Jesus determined exactly at the time that/how He would die.  Jn.10:17-18 “No married ~ takes it from Me, I hold authority to lay down My life.”  Mt.26:53-54 Jesus’ Father would bring forth sent Him legions of angels to redemption Him, had He asked. “But whether or not I did ask, how would the holy writ be fulfilled that say it be required to happen this way?”

Father God & Jesus were in charge of the undivided ordeal.  Jesus didn’t die proper to loss of blood from men’s actions according to the volition of man, or because He virtuous couldn’t take prolonged suffering.  Jesus made the conclusion as to the exact time He would die…He declared, “I thirst.”  He initiated the attack of death.  He gave His life (conducive to us)…men didn’t take it!

We conceive that Jesus’ throat wasn’t rend as were the Passover lambs & animal sacrifices (analogies and types end at more point).  The important thing to remember is…Jesus did give His life/blood for our preservation!  1Jn.5:6 “This is He who came ~ dint of. water and blood, Jesus Christ.”  Both irrigate and blood flowed from His shoot wound (Jn.19:34).  Ro.3:23-25 “Christ Jesus, whom God displayed publically being of the kind which a sacrifice through faith in His hot spark, for the remission of our sins.”  He.10:19-23 “Since we also have confidence to enter the blessed place by the blood of Jesus, give leave to us draw near in full security of faith. For He is close who promised.”

Jesus conquered death!  1Co.15:4 “He was buried, and raised the 3rd promised time according to the scriptures.”  Jesus died…and rose again!  His blood was poured abroad on our behalf.  Therefore we have power to come boldly to God for absolution.  Let us come to the give an elevated place of grace with confident assurance.  Our God is truthful!  It is finished (Jn.19:30)!

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