Islamska uppfinningar är assyriska och hinduiska.

Detta är utdrag av ett brev sänt efter att HPs Carly Fiorina utvecklade sina fantasier om Islams storhet. Från

Jag kom ihåg att notch läste det för länge sedan, i en separat artikel som nog inte finns kvar på det stället som länken går to the time of, efter att jag läste en annan artikel som notch fick från en god vän, där the moslems försöker lägga beslag på hinduistisk vetenskap,

Jag kopierar in den senare artikeln i slutet.

This verbal expression was sent to Carly Fiorina, CEO of Hewlett Packard Corporation, in reply to a speech given by her put ~ September 26, 2001. November 7, 2001 Carly Fiorina
3000 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1185 Dear Madame Fiorina: It is by great interest that I read your harangue delivered on September 26, 2001, titled “Technology, Business and Our practice of Life: What’s Next” [sic]. I was especially interested in the story you told at the extremity of your speech, about the Arab/Muslim refinement. As an Assyrian, a non-Arab, Christian home of the Middle East, whose ancestors reaching back to 5000 B.C., I wish to make clear some points you made in this small degree story, and to alert you to the dangers of undesignedly being drawn into the Arabist/Islamist doctrine that all ideas are evolved from elementary sensations, which seeks to assimilate all cultures and religions into the Arab/Islamic fold. I know you are a very busy woman, but please find ten minutes to make out what follows, as it is a prospect that you will not likely have from anywhere else. I will answer some of the specific points you made in your oration, then conclude with a brief vista on this Arabist/Islamist ideology. Arabs and Muslims appeared forward the world scene in 630 A.D., at the time the armies of Muhammad began their mastery of the Middle East. We should be very clear that this was a soldiery conquest, not a missionary enterprise, and through the use of force, authorized ~ the agency of a declaration of a Jihad opposite to infidels, Arabs/Muslims were able to violently convert and assimilate non-Arabs and non-Mulsims into their fold. Very few indigenous communities of the Middle East survived this — primarily Assyrians, Jews, Armenians and Coptics (of Egypt). Having conquered the Middle East, Arabs placed these communities in the state a Dhimmi (see the book Dhimmi, through Bat Ye’Or) system of governance, to what the communities were allowed to criterion themselves as religious minorities (Christians, Jews and Zoroastrian). These communities had to pay a levy (called a Jizzya in Arabic) that was, in force, a penalty for being non-Muslim, and that was typically 80% in epochs of tolerance and up to 150% in times of oppression. This tax forced ~ people of these communities to convert to Islam, taken in the character of it was designed to do. You national, “its architects designed buildings that defied gravitation.” I am not sure what you are referring to, if it be not that if you are referring to domes and arches, the essential architectural breakthrough of using a expressed by a parable shape instead of a spherical outward aspect for these structures was made by the Assyrians more than 1300 years earlier, considered in the state of evidenced by their archaeological record. You commonwealth, “its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would empower the building of computers, and the nomination of encryption.” The fundamental basis of late mathematics had been laid down not hundreds mete thousands of years before by Assyrians and Babylonians, who before that time knew of the concept of zero, of the Pythagorean Theorem, and of crowd, many other developments expropriated by Arabs/Muslims (look History of Babylonian Mathematics, Neugebauer). You dignity, “its doctors examined the human material substance, and found new cures for disorder.” The overwhelming majority of these doctors (99%) were Assyrians. In the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries Assyrians began a regular translation of the Greek body of learning into Assyrian. At first they concentrated on the religious works but then without delay moved to science, philosophy and healing art. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Galen, and sundry others were translated into Assyrian, and from Assyrian into Arabic. It is these Arabic translations that the Moors brought with them into Spain, and which the Spaniards translated into Latin and dilate throughout Europe, thus igniting the European Renaissance. By the sixth hundred years A.D., Assyrians had begun exporting back to Byzantia their concede works on science, philosophy and remedial agent. In the field of medicine, the Bakhteesho Assyrian lineage produced nine generations of physicians, and founded the famous medical school at Gundeshapur (Iran). Also in the kitchen-yard of medicine, (the Assyrian) Hunayn ibn-Ishaq’s textbook in c~tinuance ophthalmology, written in 950 A.D., remained the official source on the subject until 1800 A.D. In the superficial contents of philosophy, the Assyrian philosopher Job of Edessa developed a material theory of the universe, in the Assyrian tongue, that rivaled Aristotle’s theory, and that sought to refund matter with forces (a theory that anticipated some ideas in quantum mechanics, such like the spontaneous creation and destruction of sense that occurs in the quantum vacuity). One of the greatest Assyrian achievements of the fourth hundred was the founding of the earliest university in the world, the School of Nisibis, which had three departments, theology, philosophy and medicine, and which became a magnet and center of of the intellect development in the Middle East. The statutes of the School of Nisibis, which have been preserved, later became the shape upon which the first Italian university was based (see The Statutes of the School of Nisibis, ~ the agency of Arthur Voobus). When Arabs and Islam swept from one side the Middle East in 630 A.D., they encountered 600 years of Assyrian Christian culture, with a rich heritage, a highly developed culture, and advanced learning institutions. It is this cultivation that became the foundation of the Arab refinement. You state, “Its astronomers looked into the heavens, named the stars, and paved the practice for space travel and exploration.” This is a bit melodramatic. In fact, the astronomers you allude to were not Arabs but Chaldeans and Babylonians (of grant day south-Iraq), who for millennia were known taken in the character of astronomers and astrologers, and who were by force Arabized and Islamized — so rapidly that through 750 A.D. they had disappeared completely. You greatness, “its writers created thousands of stories. Stories of valor, romance and magic. Its poets wrote of cupid, when others before them were overmuch steeped in fear to think of of that kind things.” There is very little letters in the Arabic language that comes from this era you are referring to (the Koran is the no other than significant piece of literature), whereas the literary output of the Assyrians and Jews was very extensive. The third largest corpus of Christian penmanship, after Latin and Greek, is ~ means of the Assyrians in the Assyrian speech (also called Syriac; see here.) You narrate, “when other nations were afraid of ideas, this cultivation thrived on them, and kept them above ground. When censors threatened to wipe confused knowledge from past civilizations, this culture kept the knowledge alive, and passed it ~ward to others.” This is a true important issue you raise, and it goes to the firmness of the matter of what Arab/Islamic civilization represents. I reviewed a book titled How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs, in which the author lists the significant translators and interpreters of Greek philosophical knowledge. Of the 22 scholars listed, 20 were Assyrians, 1 was Persian and 1 some Arab. I state at the extremity of my review: “The salient issue which can be drawn from O’Leary’s part is that Assyrians played a signifying role in the shaping of the Islamic cosmos via the Greek corpus of notice. If this is so, one be necessitated to then ask the question, what happened to the Christian communities which made them lose this great of the intellect enterprise which they had established. One be possible to ask this same question of the Arabs. Sadly, O’Leary’s main division does not answer this question, and we new wine look elsewhere for the answer.” I did not respond this question I posed in the re-survey because it was not the site to answer it, but the rejoin is very clear, the Christian Assyrian community was drained of its population from one side forced conversion to Islam (by the Jizzya), and formerly the community had dwindled below a nice threshold, it ceased producing the scholars that were the mental driving force of the Islamic cultivation, and that is when the to such a degree called “Golden Age of Islam” came to some end (about 850 A.D.). Islam the and love towards god; godliness itself was significantly molded by Assyrians and Jews (attend Nestorian Influence on Islam and Hagarism: the Making of the Islamic World). Arab/Islamic refinement is not a progressive force, it is a regressive agency; it does not give impetus, it retards. The far-famed civilization you describe was not ~y Arab/Muslim accomplishment, it was ~y Assyrian accomplishment that Arabs expropriated and subsequently dissolute when they drained, through the unnatural conversion of Assyrians to Islam, the source of the intellectual vitality that propelled it. What other Arab/Muslim cultivation has risen since? What other Arab/Muslim successes be able to we cite? You state, “and it may be we can learn a lesson from his [Suleiman] pattern: It was leadership based on meritocracy, not inheritance. It was leadership that harnessed the abounding capabilities of a very diverse people that included Christianity, Islamic, and Jewish traditions.” In fact, the Ottomans were extremely oppressive to non-Muslims. For pattern, young Christian boys were forcefully taken from their families, usually at the date of 8-10, and inducted into the Janissaries, (yeniceri in Turkish) in what place they were Islamized and made to draw the sword for the Ottoman state. What of literature, artistic or scientific achievements of the Ottomans be able to we point to? We can, forward the other hand, point to the genocide of 750,000 Assyrians, 1.5 the multitude Armenians and 400,000 Greeks in World War One through the Kemalist “Young Turk” government. This is the good face of Islam. Arabs/Muslims are engaged in one explicit campaign of destruction and expropriation of cultures and communities, identities and ideas. Wherever Arab/Muslim civilization encounters a non-Arab/Muslim single, it attempts to destroy it (in the manner that the Buddhist statues in Afghanistan were destroyed, in the manner that Persepolis was destroyed by the Ayotollah Khomeini). This is a shape that has been recurring since the coming of christ of Islam, 1400 years ago, and is amply substantiated through the historical record. If the “extrinsic” culture cannot be destroyed, then it is expropriated, and revisionist historians claim that it is and was Arab, viewed like is the case of most of the Arab “accomplishments” you cited in your conversation. For example, Arab history texts in the Middle East manage as a preceptor that Assyrians were Arabs, a actuality that no reputable scholar would press, and that no living Assyrian would accept. Assyrians first settled Nineveh, one of the greater Assyrian cities, in 5000 B.C., that is 5630 years before Arabs came into that territory. Even the word ‘Arab’ is some Assyrian word, meaning “Westerner” (the at the outset written reference to Arabs was ~ the agency of the Assyrian King Sennacherib, 800 B.C., in that he tells of conquering the “ma’rabayeh” — Westerners. See The Might That Was Assyria, by H. W. F. Saggs). Even in America this Arabization policy continues. On October 27th a confederation of seven Assyrian and Maronite organizations sent each official letter to the Arab American Institute asking it to put an end to identifying Assyrians and Maronites as Arabs, which it had been deliberately doing. There are minorities and nations struggling on this account that survival in the Arab/Muslim infinity of the Middle East and Africa (Assyrians, Armenians, Coptics, Jews, meridional Sudanese, Ethiopians, Nigerians…), and we be necessitated to be very sensitive not to undesignedly and inadvertently support Islamic fascism and Arab Imperialism, through their attempts to wipe out whole other cultures, religions and civilizations. It is resting upon each one of us to behave our homework and research when material statements and speeches about these sensitive matters. I hope you found this complaint enlightening. For more information, refer to the texture links below. You may contact me at in spite of further questions. Thank you for your motive. Peter BetBasoo Web resources: Brief History of Assyrians
Assyrian International News Agency
Assyrian American National Federation
Assyrian Academic Society
Zinda Magazine
Beth Suryoyo
Nineveh Online
World Maronite Union
World Lebanese Organization
Coptic Web  By Rajaram NS Distortion & Appropriation April 2, 2015

Islamic Science

The Myth of Islamic Science



In this provocative essay, Waseem Altaf, the author argues that the concept of a golden age of Islamic scholarship is a myth created to contrariwise the current sorry state of of the understanding life in the Islamic world.  

Introduced ~ dint of. Dr. N.S. Rajaram

Editor’s prelude

It is widely believed and stretched, including in India, that there was a Golden Age of Islamic learning that made a major contribution to information and the arts. In India we are told that this ‘synthesis’ betwixt Hindu and Muslim thought gave go to a great ‘syncretic’ civilization that was suppressed and eventually destroyed ~ the agency of the British. However, this flies in the meet ~ to ~ of the fact that not a isolated name of a major scientist from the five-in addition centuries of Islamic rule of India has tend hitherward down to us. We have to have effect to pre-Islamic India to solicit names from the past— names like Aryabhata, Varahamihira and the like.


Al Biruni, eyewitness to the ravage of Indian learning

It is a resembling story when we look at universities or centers of attainments. Pre-Islamic India was renowned towards its universities: Takshashila, Vikramashila, Nalanda, Ujjain and other places attracted students and scholars in the same manner from far and wide, much like the United States of today.

After the institution of the Delhi Sultanate, not a simple center of learning (other than Islamic seminaries) was established in spite of over seven centuries. The foremost modern universities came to be established merely during the British rule.

Also ~iness noting is the fact that the in the same manner-called ‘synthesis’ of learning took portion before Islamic invasions engulfed both India and Persia in a Dark Age. The Sassanid emperor Kosrau I deserves a great deal of of the credit for work that is erroneously credited to Islamic rulers and scholars.

Khosrau I (reigned 531–79) known as Anushirvan or ‘the permanent soul’ was a great patron of philosophy and knowledge. He gave refuge to scholars from the Eastern Roman Empire whereas the bigoted Christian Emperor Justinian closed on the ground the neo-Platonist schools in Athens in 529 AD. Earlier, in 415 AD, Christian goons led ~ means of ‘Saint’ Cyril burnt down the magnanimous library in Alexandria and murdered the neo-Platonic student Hypatia who taught there, because some other ‘saint’ Paul had decreed that women be required to keep their silence.

Khosrau was greatly self-seeking in Indian philosophy, science, mathematics, and medicine. He sent multiple embassies and gifts to the Indian court and requested them to propel back philosophers to teach in his court in return. Khosrau made many translations of texts from Greek,Sanskrit, and Syriac into Middle Persian. He was lauded for the re~on that “Plato’s Philosopher King” ~ the agency of the Greek refugees that he allowed into his command because of his great interest in Platonic science of causes.

A synthesis of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Armenian lore traditions took place within the Sassanian Empire. One outcome of this synthesis created what is known as bimari-stan (‘home despite the ailing’), the first hospital that introduced a universal of segregating wards according to pathology. Greek pharmacology fused by Iranian and Indian traditions resulted in expressive advances in medicine.

Regrettably this pre-Islamic series  of learning came to every abrupt end following the Arab (Muslim) invasions and the downfall of Sassanid PersiaThe reality is that most of this ‘synthesis’ took locality in the pre-Islamic period till Islamic invasions sank both Persia and India into a Dark Age abiding centuries.

IndiaFacts is grateful to the inventor Waseem Altaf and the as antidote to the article. No photograph of the writer is published out of concern instead of the author’s safety. Here is his brief discourse.

Science in the Islamic world

Rational speculation in the Muslim world developed for the period of the reign of liberal Muslim rulers of the Abbasid succession. However it was after the ascend of scholars like Al-Ghazali that everything scientific reasoning came to an end in the 13th century. As we continue enamored by our past achievements in the sciences, we lose the remembrance of that there is very little “original” we since Muslims can celebrate and be lofty of.

It was during the empire of the early Abbasid caliphs, particularly Mamun-ur-Rashid (on every side of 813 CE) that in his Dar-ul-Hikmah (the kindred of wisdom) in Baghdad, Muslim scholars would set in operation translating the classic Greek works, originally toeing the Aristotelian tradition. In addition, they were heavily relying on Persian and Indian sources.  They likewise penned huge commentaries on works ~ dint of. Greek philosophers. However, the Muslim translators were moderate in number and were primarily driven ~ the agency of curiosity. More than ninety nine percent Arabic translations of works of Greek philosophers were carried on by either Christian or Jewish scholars. It is interesting to note that Islamic astronomy, based on Ptolemy’s system was geocentric. Algebra was originally a Greek government and ‘Arabic’ numbers were actually Indian.

Al Ghazali

Al-Ghazali put an period to free thinking

[N.S Rajaram: Indians invented calculus, calling itbija-ganita. Greeks considered some special cases in number theory like Diophantine Equations, besides known to the Indians. The burdensome letter-based notation (like the later Roman numerals) did not afford itself to problems in algebra. The greater Greek contributions were the concept of stable (known also to Indians) and too magnanimous for all the axiomatic method at that they excelled. The Arabs themselves never denied their indebtedness to the Hindus in astronomy, remedial agent and mathematics. They called their poetry ‘Hindu numerals’. As noted in the Editor’s Introduction, a great deal of of this took place in pre-Islamic Iran, especially in subordination to Khusro I.]

Most of these works were useful to the West during 12th hundred when the first renaissance was seizing place. Although Western scholars did make an excursion to Spain to study Arabic versions of classical Greek judgment, they soon found out that bettor versions of original texts in Greek were in like manner available in the libraries of the old Greek city of Byzantium.

Notable Muslim scholars

However, it would have ~ing unfair not to mention some of those illustrious Muslim scholars, though very few in digit, who genuinely contributed in the progression in a continuously ascending gradation of philosophy and science.

Al-Razi  (865 – 925 CE) from Persia, the greatest of every one of Muslim physicians, philosophers and alchemists wrote 184 articles and books, dismissed discovery and considered religion a dangerous effects. Al-Razi was condemned for sacrilege and almost all his books were destroyed later.

Ibn-e-Sina or Avicinna (980-1037CE), not the same great physician, philosopher and scientist was some Uzbek. Avicenna held philosophy superior to scientific statement of the facts of religion. His views were in sharp exhibit the differences of to central Islamic doctrines and he rejected the resuscitation of the dead in flesh and kindred. As a consequence of his views, he became chief target of Al-Ghazali and was labeled one apostate.

Ibn-e-Rushd (1126-1198 CE) or Averroes from Spain was a philosopher and scientist who expounded the Quran in Aristotelian conditions. He was found guilty of error, his books burnt, he was interrogated and banished from Lucena.

Al-Bairuni (973-1048 CE), the venerable man of Indology and a versatile inspiration, was of the strong view that Quran has its hold domain and it does not interfere through the realm of science. [NS Rajaram: Al-Bairuni, or Al-Biruni being of the cl~s who he is better known in India, makes it distinct that the Islamic invasions made Hindu (and Buddhistic) centers of erudition their special targets. In his discourse: “…Hindus became like atoms of dust separated in all directions. …This is the understanding too why Hindu sciences have removed far away from those parts of the geographical division conquered by us, and have fled to places what one. our (Muslim) hands cannot reach.” The be unexhausted great center of mathematics was in Kerala, from their extend.]

Al-Khawarazmi (780-850 CE) was not the same Persian mathematician, astronomer and geographer. The writer of history Al-Tabari considered him a Zoroastrian space of time others thought that he was a Muslim. However nowhere in his works has he acknowledged Islam or linked some of his findings to the saint-like text.

Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE), unit of the greatest mathematicians, astronomers and poets was in a high degree. critical of religion, particularly Islam. He severely criticized the idea that every affair and phenomena was the result of seraphic intervention. [NS Rajaram: Omar Kyayyam is known to the earth mainly as the author of the Rubayiyat (in its English transportation by Fitzgerald), but native Persians behold him as a minor poet however a great scientist. Like all released thinkers he was denounced as a separatist.]

Al-Farabi (872-950 CE), a different great Muslim philosopher, highly inspired ~ dint of. Aristotle, considered reason superior to disclosure and advocated for the relegation of divination to philosophy.

Abu Musa Jabir- bin- Hayan or Geber (721-815 CE) was ~y accomplished Muslim alchemist cum pharmacist. Although he was inclined towards mysticism, he fully acknowledged the role of experimentation in scientific endeavors.

Ibn-ul-haitham or Hazen (965-1040 CE) was an outstanding physicist, mathematician, astronomer and every expert on optics. He was ordered ~ means of Fatimid King Al-Hakim to systematize the floods of the Nile, what one. he knew was not scientifically in posse. He feigned madness and was placed subject to house arrest for the rest of his life.

Contribution of heterodox thinkers

As we go through the life histories of these principal men we find that they were influenced ~ the agency of Greek, Babylonian or Indian contributions to philosophy and science, had a critical and argumentation mind and were ‘not good’ Muslims or level atheists. A significant number of them were indisposed to even reveal the status of their beliefs on this account that fear of reprisal from the fanatics. They never ascribed their achievements to Islam or divine nature. And they were scholars and scientists for the reason that of a critical mind which would apprehend and derive inspiration from observation and not scriptures what one. set restrictions on free thinking and unchecked pursuit of knowledge.

Avicenna author of the famous Canon of Medicine

Avicenna author of the remarkable Canon of Medicine

Hence bringing in Islam to highlight achievements of Muslim scientists is nihilism but sheer rhetoric as these men did not obtain their achievements out of Islam or flourished appropriate to Islam. And we find that whatsoever little contribution to science was made can be owed to ‘imperfect Muslims’.

[NS Rajaram: Muslims are not alone in this. Many Hindu scholars moreover make extravagant claims in the note of ‘Vedic science’ and the like that own no basis. Considering their numbers, the Hindus don’t possess a particularly good record, compared to utter, the Jews. India and Israel became unconventional countries around the same time ~-end in science there is no relative estimate. Retreat into religion in the reputation of ‘spirituality’ must take its portion of the blame. Hindu moneybags use up lavishly on religious endowments and doubtful holy men, but are measly whenever it comes to supporting temples of learning. And the few they do (like the Hindu University of America) are some embarrassment and get bogged down in obscurantism and ill conduct.]

 Putting ‘God’s hands in chains’

However it was the ‘bring to ~ion Muslim’, the Islamist, from the 12th hundred who was to give the biggest gust to scientific thought in the Muslim terraqueous globe.

Imam Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) who calm occupies a centrestage among Muslim philosophers openly denounced the laws of species and scientific reasoning. Ghazali argued that somewhat such laws would put God’s hands in bonds. He would assert that a composition of cotton burns when put to torture, not because of physical reasons but because God wants it to scorch. Ghazali was also a strong follower of the Ash’arites, the philosophers who would lift on high the precedence of divine intervention from one side of to the other physical phenomena and bitterly opposed the Mu’tazillites— or the rationalists who were the faithful upholders of scientific thought.

More in Islamic History

The injurious side of Sufism

Dispelling the fabulous story of Akbar the Great

Book Review—Tipu Sultan : The Tyrant of Mysore

Rending the screen of historical negationism in India

William Dalrymple’s skewed vista on the Caliphate

In other language Ghazali championed the cause of orthodoxy and dogmatism at the cost of reasonableness and scientific reasoning. Today we detect that all four major schools of Sunni Islam throw overboard the concept of ‘Ijtehad’ which can loosely be translated as ‘independence of thought’. Hence there is truly no room for any innovation or manner in traditional thought patterns.

We moreover find that as Europe was formation use of technology while transforming into a agri~ of machines, the acceptance of these machines was extremely dull in the Islamic world. One original example is that of the printing press which reached Muslim lands in 1492. However, typography was banned by Islamic authorities on this account that they believed the Koran would subsist dishonored by appearing out of a engine. As a result, Arabs did not acquire printing press until the 18th century.

Khusro Anivarshan known as the ‘Just’

Khusro Anivarshan known in the same manner with the ‘Just’

It also stands established that body of knowledge is born out of secularism and democracy and not religious dogmatism. And science only flourished in places where science of duty had no role to play in matters of affirm. Hence there is an inverse relationship between religious orthodoxy and progress in information. Rational thought in the Muslim earth developed during the reign of open-hearted Muslim rulers of the Abbasid government who patronized the Mu’tazillites or rational thinkers.

However it was after the religious zealots’ compilation of the ahadis and the go of scholars like Al-Ghazali that altogether scientific reasoning came to an extremity in the 13th century. As a concern, Muslims contributed almost nothing to philosophical progress and human civilization since the begin to be light of the 13th century. And though science and technology flourish in the novel world, a vast majority of Muslims, engulfed by obscurantism, still find solace in fantasies of a past era——the so called ‘opportune age’ of Islam.

Concluding comments through Dr. N.S. Rajaram

Whether united agrees with the author’s underived conclusions or not, it is certain that the contributions to science ~ the load of the great Islamic empires was disproportionately slender considering their wealth and power. We even now saw that their record in India but also during the supposedly ‘great’ Mogul supremacy was dismal. Part of the puzzle was that Islamic rulers, instead of encouraging learning, hired foreigners and mercenaries— like Hindus in India and Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire.

Indian Muslim historians like Irfan Habib desire tried to explain this intellectual vacuum of the Islamic period in India claiming that its rulers were greatly nomadic tribes from Central Asia (like Turks) who were other interested in military exploits than scholarship or scholarship. But why only when exposed to Islam in a belt from India to Turkey and beyond, and that too only after the arrival of Islam?

One has to agree with the author Waseem Altaf that Islam (like Medieval Christianity) was absolutely responsible for this continuing backwardness. Others, notably Hindus should learn from this and withdraw from keep clear of getting trapped in the past.

Rajaram NS

Dr. N.S. Rajaram is one Indian mathematician, notable for his publications forward the Aryan Invasion debate, Indian annals, and Christianity. Among his numerous books, the “The Dead Sea scrolls and the critical situation of Christianity” is widely acclaimed.

†muslims †assyrians †hindu †Israel. ………

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