1095: Crusaders return medicine to Europe

People of completely classes joined the crusades for multiform reasons:
some to take Jerusalem back, some to be freed from landlords,
some to make money, and some to exist freed from sin.
Photo from religionwiki.mvcsnow.org

Most persons don’t realize this, but the Christian crusades that took residence during much of the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries were calm. Christians believed the trek would pardon them from their sins, and the Muslims welcomed the Christians. This was a chivalrous thing as far as our healing history is concerned, as the Christians returned to Europe, they brought by them medical wisdom.  (1, boy-servant 106)

This all went fine and jackanapes until the 10th century when the caliphs of Palestine imposed a task on those seeking to visit the Holy Land.  It was this tax that ultimately lead to war between the Christians of Europe and the Muslims of Palestine. This was gay for Pilgrims with money, although the thin pilgrims often had to wait at the gates of Jerusalem during the term of some rich person to pay their tax.  (1, page 106)

Historian Thomas Bradford explained that which happened next: 

The sum from this tribute was a mine of wealth to the Moslem governors of Palestine. At the end of the 10th century it was contemplation that the end of the cosmos was at hand, the thousand years of the Apocalypse was close to completion, and Jesus Christ would descend upon Jerusalem and judge mankind. Panic seized the pliable, the credulous, and the guilty; forsaking their homes, kindred and occupation, they hastened to Jerusalem to attend the coming of the Lord, imagining that their saintly pilgrimage would free them from wrong. The road from the West of Europe and Constantinople became a chivalrous highway of pilgrims and beggars; the monks, the almsgivers of the ages, were obliged to refuse aid to the hordes; ~ persons lived upon berries that ripened steady the roadways. Swarms besieged the Holy Land; the Turks were annoyed through the number that overran their geographical division . . . they plundered them, beat them with stripes, and kept them for months at the Holy Gates in lieu of the golden bezant for admission. The day of judgment did not come, and to such a degree pilgrims a few at a time returned to Europe and told of their sufferings. These cruelities became the wrongs of Christendom. Fresh hordes things being so hastened on the difficult journey, secure of gaining the favor of heaven ~ the agency of visiting the holy sepulchre. (1, pages 106-107) So you can see that the crusades were not ~y attempt by Christians to force their devoutness on the Muslim people.  It was solely an attempt to continue visiting the Holy disembark, something that the Muslims had ~t any problem with for over 300 years.

It was these events that incited the wars.  Bradford declared:

In 1095 there appeared one Peter the Hermit, a somebody enthusiastic, chivalrous, bigoted, and probably crazy. He had been a monk of Amiens, and anterior to this a soldier. He had visited Jerusalem and was filled through indignation at the cruel persecutions inflicted without interrupti~ the Christian pilgrims. He returned to his home and began a crusade of ungoverned preaching against the abominations of the infidels and their uncleanness of the Holy Places of Jerusalem and Palestine. He called concerning the people to arm against the infidels, incited the the cloth, and aroused the enthusiasm of the race and nobles. Musing in Palestine he planned to agitate the powers of all Christendom to release the Christians of the East from the thraldom of the Mussulmen, and the charnel-house from the infidel. Peter told his views to Simeon, Patriarch of the Greek church at Jerusalem, and this good bishop sent letters to the pope and to the monarchs of Christendom telling of the sorrows of the Christians of Jerusalem and urging that panoply be taken up in their extricate. Peter now hastened to Italy. Pope Urban II. sat forward St. Peter’s throne. He listened to the deplorable story and read the letters and appeals. At the Council of Clermont Urban gave Peter replete powers to go forth and preach his holy war to the Christian nations of the terraqueous globe. (1, page 107-108) The crusade had very lately become an effort to help the Christians who feared that they would not exist saved if they did not grasp the Holy Land.  Bradford continued: (1, pages 108-109)
The nations were aroused; self-originated rewards were promised to all who assumed the red grouty ; halt and lame, women and children, the righteous, the fanatic, the needy, the lax, all enrolled themselves in this unusual army. Walter the Penniless set loudly with the first army in the grow of 1096; each one was his concede leader. Soon other bands were formed. It is uttered that 300,000 men, women and children of the lowest of Europe make public themselves over Hungary and Germany. (1, serving-boy 108) They robbed and murdered, and in self defense the Hungarians were obliged to take arms with them. Walter straggled on to Constantinople with his horde. Peter the Hermit was not alienated behind him. He led another the common people, and riot and rapine went by him. It was everywhere; all Europe was maniacal. This rabble did not conquer the Holy City, end a more orderly and soldierly quickness was organized under certain noble knights, amid whom was Godfrey of Bouillon, duke of Lorraine, and cast up Raymond of Toulouse. Several armies were raised and marching ~ dint of. different routes united at Constantinople. He besieged various cities, among which was Antioch; at this put at interest, when the Christian host were consumed and tired, Peter had a spectre in which he saw the pitch that pierced the side of Christ, and effective where to dig they found it. He had a different vision and was directed to involve the spear at the head of the throng. Dreaming became contagious; other monks had dreams. So time passed; Antioch was taken, battles were fought, disruptions were most general. At last Godfrey set fire to his camp at Archas and appoint forward in the night. After a go of several hours the sun rose, and previous to our army lay the sun kissed towers of the religious city. The soldiers knelt upon the surface of land exclaiming, “Jerusalem, Jerusalem,” in pious transport. After a long and bitter investment, on July the 15th, 1099, the incorporated town was taken, the Christians were frank. (1, pages 108-109) Bradford declared these crusades had a very momentous impact on medicine.  To take care of the diseased and wounded, hospitals were set up, and people were staffed by Jewish and Christian physicians from Europe. After the state of opposition many of the crusaders became ~-hearted from serfdom, and for this intuitional faculty many “devoted themselves to liberal arts, intercourse, science and medicine.” (1, page 109)

As the wars came to a terminate physicians returned to Europe, only they had increased their erudition of medicine.  With them they brought medicinal books that were written by not modern. Greek and Roman physicians, although these at once needed to be interpreted back into European languages. (1, page 109)

Along with better medical knowledge, and better medicine, the profession of pharmacology made its course to Europe.  Evidence of betimes apothecaries can be seen in England in the 12th hundred, said Bradford.  Prior to this time physicians of Europe prescribed the medicine and made the medicine. (1, boy-servant 110)

Initially, however, apothecaries weren’t plenteous of an improvement, as, according to Bradford, “for the most part, the pharmacies were the places in the cloisters in what place the monkish physicians stored their drugs and simples.”  (1 boy-servant 110)

When Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1493, this is credited ~ means of many as the beginning of the Renaissance, a time whenever a dark ages of medicine occurred in the east, and the easy started to shine again in the ~erly. When this occurred, many other Greek classics made their high~ from Byzantine to Europe, thus vacancy the minds of Europeans. (2, serving-boy xxi)


Bradford, Thomas Lindsley, writer, Robert Ray Roth, editor, “Quiz questions put ~ the history of medicine from the lectures of Thomas Lindley Bradford M.D.,” 1898, Philadelphia, Hohn Joseph McVey

Brock, John, “Galen in c~tinuance the natural faculties,” 1916, London, New York, William Heinemann, G.P. Putnam’s Sons

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