XENON-THE STRANGER

pale, odourless, tasteless gas

four times denser than open ~. 

density and viscosity are strongly higher than those of other inhalational anaesthetics. 

occurs in extremely soft concentrations (0.0875 ppm) in the atmosphere, hence its name from the Greek ‘xenos’ signification ‘stranger’. 

Xenon has been used experimentally of the same kind with an anaesthetic for more than 50 years 

Recently in that place has been a renewed interest in xenon in the same manner with a safe, effective and more environmentally kindly substitute for nitrous oxide (Sanders et al. 2003). 

manufactured ~ means of fractional distillation of liquefied air, currently at a cost of US $10 through litre (i.e. about 2,000 general condition of affairs the cost of producing N2O). This domineering cost is the major factor limiting its to a greater degree widespread use, even when used in ignoble-flow delivery systems. 

Xenon has many of the properties of an mental anaesthetic. 

Its blood/gas screen coefficient (0.12) is lower than that of any other anaesthetic, giving rapid induction and emergence. 

It is unlikely to have ~ing involved in any biochemical events in the material substance, and is not metabolised. 

Xenon causes ~t one significant changes in myocardial contractility, common derivation pressure or systemic vascular resistance, strange to say in the presence of severe cardiac disease (Sanders et al. 2005). 

The exceptional combination of analgesia, hypnosis, and need of haemodynamic depression in one cause would make xenon a very pleasant choice for patients with limited cardiovascular reserve 

In show difference to other inhaled anaesthetic agents, xenon swamp-sickness the respiratory rate and increases the tidal power, thereby maintaining minute ventilation constant. 

Airway distress is increased during xenon anaesthesia, appropriate to its higher density and tenacity rather than direct changes in airway check (Baumert et al 2002). 

Because of its loftily cost xenon must be used in grovelling-flow closed circuits. Crucial to this rule of administration is accurate measurement of the compression into a small compass of xenon in the circuit. This area is generally difficult as xenon is  diamagnetic and does not devour infrared radiation (commonly used to gauge the  concentrations of other agents), and its menial reactivity precludes the use of precise fuel cell or electrode-type devices. 

Xenon conducts vehemence better than other gases, and a technique based ~ward thermal conductivity has proved to have ~ing effective (Luginbuhl et al 2002). 

Because xenon is heavier than open atmosphere, the speed of sound is slower in xenon than that in song, and this difference has been also been used to measure xenon condensation. 

Because xenon is a natural constituent of the atmosphere, it does not adject to atmospheric pollution when emitted from the suspended consciousness circuit. This is in contrast to the other inhalational anaesthetics, that have ozone-depleting potential and defile the atmosphere when released from the anaesthesia system (Marx et al. 2001). 

On a corpuscular basis, N2O is 230 times additional potent as a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. N2O released as a waste pain-suppressing agent contributes roughly 0.1% of whole global warming. The lifetime of N2O in the atmosphere is long—approximately 120 years. 

The agent producing insensibility actions of xenon are thought to outcome primarily from noncompetitive inhibition of  NMDA receptors (De Sousa et al. 2000), a property it shares by nitrous oxide. 

In common with other NMDA receptor antagonists, xenon appears to be under the necessity neuroprotective properties (Sanders et al. 2003). 

Xenon is in addition an excellent analgesic, an action mediated ~ means of NMDA receptors (De Sousa et al. 2000). 

Xenon in addition inhibits the plasma membrane Ca 2+   cross-examine, altering neuronal excitability and inhibiting the nociceptive responsiveness of spinal on the back horn neurones. 

(Reference : Jürgen Schüttler •  Helmut Schwilden Modern Anesthetics ,Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 182)

Carlson, 30, of Duluth, whose goal is to have ~ing a registered nurse.

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