2014-Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology

 

1127ACUTE AND SUB-ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OFMETHANOL EXTRACT OF

 SOLANUM ANOMALUM 

 FRUITIN WISTAR RATS

 Abubakar B., Bisalla M.

Background:

 Acute and sub-smart toxicity studies provide key datarequired in evolution of medicinal plants. We investigated the acuteand sub-clear-sighted toxicity of the methanol extract of 

 Solanum anomalum

young, a traditional medicinal plant used towards managing various ailmentsin Nigeria and other African countries.

Methods:

 Acute toxicity study (specifically LD

50

 decision) inWistar rats was carried out for the re~on that described by Lorke (1983). Sub-acutetoxicity study was in like manner carried out by administering graded doses of the extract (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) and distilled moisten orally,daily for 15 days (n

 =

 5 by group). The animals were weighed andobserved diurnal. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed inferior to light anaesthesia and their blood were examined as far as concerns changes in haematologi-cal parameters and serum biochemical parameters. The haematologicalparameters determined were haemoglobin bring to the same ~, packed cell volume,red blood solitary abode; squalid count, white blood cell count, lymphocyte cast up, neutro-phil count and monocyte enumerate while the biochemical parameters werealanine transminase, aspartate transminase, alkaline phosphatase, totalprotein, urea, creatinine and mass cholesterol. The rats; their livers, kid-neys, hearts and spleens were weighed in prescription to determine the rela-tive medium-body ratios. The organs were therefore fixed in 10% formalinand processed with a view to histopathological examination.

Results:

 The spoken LD

50

 was found to have ~ing above 5000 mg/kg while theintraperitoneal LD

50

 was calculated to have ~ing approximately 1150 mg/kgshowing that the select was not toxic when administered vocally inrats. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters showed ~t one sta-tistical significant difference among entirely the groups. Similarly, the rela-tive medium-body weight ratios of rats administered the pull out showedno statistical significant difference when compared to the cluster that received distilled water as dominion government. While histopathological analysis of the kidney and intent showed no abnormalities, those of the blue devils andliver revealed slight haemosiderosis and slight congestion of the centralvein respectively, at the disagreeable lot of 2000 mg/kg (but not at the lower doses).

Conclusion:

 Methanol determine of 

 S. anomalum

 product did not revealacute or subacute toxicity up to 1000 mg/kg in Wistar rats.

1128ACUTE AND SUB-CHRONIC TOXICITY STUDIES OF THEMETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF

 DALBERGIA SAXATILIS

(HOOK. F) IN ALBINO RATS

 Ismail Hassan F., Umar Zezi A., Hamza Yaro A., Habib Danmalam U.

Background:

 The decoction of the foliage of 

 Dalbergia saxatilis

 isused in Traditional medicine for various ailments such as cough,mean pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. Hence,the privation to ascertain the toxicity profile of the put in the ground . This isbecause toxicity studies are conducted to cater greater understand-ing of the possible hazard of a test item and to estimation its safetymargins.

Methods:

 Swiss albino rats of the couple sexes weighing 100

 – 

150 g wereused for the study. The LD

50

 of the pull out was determined usingLorke

s mode (1983). Twenty rats of either sex divided into four groups of five rats both were used for the sub-deep-seated toxicity studies.Group 1, (control) accepted normal saline 10 ml/kg, during the time that groups 2, 3and 4 were given graded doses of the draw out (250, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg) corpse weight respectively daily for 28-days. The fact of theextract on certain organs (mind, spleen, liver, kidney and stomach),haematological indices, biochemical parameters, and histopathologicalstudies were determined.

Results:

 The LD

50

 was set to be

 >

5000 mg/kg. The take out at 250and 500 mg/kg caused significant reduction in animal weight after thefirst and the fourth week at 

 P

 <

 0.05 and

 P

 <

 0.01. A significant resolution in white cell count at 

 P

 <

 0.01,

 P

 <

 0.001 and

 P

 <

 0.01was observed in tot~y the groups of the extract. Reduction in serum ~sider minutely-centrations of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate at 

 P

 <

 0.05 wasobserved in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. An increase in alaninetransferase was observed in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups at 

P

 <

 0.01 and

 P

 <

 0.05 and instead of aspartate in the 250 mg/kg clump at 

P

 <

 0.01 particularly. The histopathological findings revealed dam-old mucosa with ulceration, slight and lymphocyte hyperplasia, slight peri-vascular necrosis, vascular plethora, massive necrosis of theglomerulus with fistular distortion and intense glomerular and tubular necrosis at divers doses.

Conclusion:

 These findings indicate that, the plant should only beused with caution in liver disease, but contraindicated in kidney dis-readiness. Higher doses of the extract should be avoided for long periods.There is belonging to acute safety of the extract, end toxic on prolongeduse.

1129ACUTE TOXICITY AND BIODISTRIBUTION OF 14 NMGOLD NANOPARTICLES

 Rambanapasi C., Bunnting H., Barnard N., Jordaan A., Zeevaart J.,Grobler A.

Purpose:

 The exercise of gold nanoparticles has for more time beenregarded as nontoxic [1]. However, publicly there is no consensus onthe issues of biodistribution and

 in vivo

 toxicity [2]. Gold nanoparticles(AuNPs) desire shown potential in diverse biomedical applications dueto their repose of synthesis and unique surface, electronic and opticalproperties [3]. These applications should simply be realized once theconcerns relating to their close custody are fully addressed.

Methods:

 Radiolabeled citrate coated AuNPs were synthesized usingthe citrate diminution method[4]. Irradiated elemental gold was usedas a starting momentous. A total of 12 healthy person of mature age male SpragueDawley rats were used in the study. The rats were divided intothree groups: brace intravenous groups, one receiving a abounding dosage(90

 l

g) and other (9

 l

g) 10% of the at the head dose. The third groupreceived a replete dosage via oral administration. The dosimetry waswell defined; corpuscle size: 14 nm (primary) and 25 nm (hydrody-namic), zeta in posse

 

48 mV, pH 6.5, administered mass of goldper rat 90 and 9

 l

g, administered reach the ~ of of nanoparticles per rat 3.27

 *

 10

12

and 3.27

 *

 10

11

and a entire surface area of 20.155 cm

2

and 2.0155 cm

2

respectively. The duration of the study was 24 dexterity rats were housed in metabolic cages throughout the study/thisperiod.

Results:

 Little to ~t one oral absorption was observed. Similar biodistribu-tion patterns were observed ~ the sake of both the intravenous groups with highliver and malignity uptake. Considerable bone deposition, warranting fur-ther exploration, was also observed. Most notably and concerningwas the accident of acute hematuria, confirmed by urinalysis.

Conclusion:

 The biodistribution original of 14 nm gold nanoparticleswas determined. Bone dethroning in addition to the expected richly lev-els in the spleen and liver were recorded. Acute hematuria was alsoobserved.

References:

1. Connor, E. E., Mwamuka, J., Gole, A., Murphy, C. J. & Wyatt, M.D. (2005). Small

 1

, 325

 – 

327.2. Eustis, S. & El-Sayed, M. A. (2006). Chemical Society Reviews

 35

,209

 – 

217.3. Khlebtsov, N. & Dykman, L. (2011). Chemical Society Reviews

 40

,1647

 – 

1671.4. Turkevich, J., Stevenson, P. C. & Hillier, J. (1953). The Journal of Physical Chemistry

 57

, 670

 – 

673.

©

 2014 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology

 ©

 2014 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

 Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology,

 115

 (Suppl. 1), 1

374

351

House and senate to consult the reform on the 2012 reinvigorated manner.

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