## On This Day in Math – October 20

The mathematician plays a fearless in which he himself invents the rules while the physicist plays a game in what one. the rules are provided by system of created things, but as time goes on it becomes increasingly clear that the rules which the mathematician finds pleasing are the same as those that nature has chosen.

~Paul Dirac

The 294th lifetime of the year; 294 is a adapted to practice number because all numbers strictly in a ~ degree than 294 can be formed through sums of distinct divisors of 294. There are but 84 such numbers in the year.

294 is the numeral of planar 2-connected graphs with seven vertices.

Found this oddity in my notes: 111152- 2942 = 123,456,789

2(294)+9(294)+4(294) – 1 is 4409, a aboriginal

EVENTS

1698 Halley began a scientific voyage on HMS Paramore & adorn out to measure magnetic variation & search for Terra Incognita. His log passage from the 20th says “Wind WSW a Small Gale I sailed from Deptford relative to Noon ” *Kate Morant@KateMorant (Deptford is a mean area near Greenwich, east of London simultaneously the Thames)

1735 Benjamin Franklin’s written instrument “On the Usefulness of Mathematics,” appeared in the Pennsylvania Gazette. [NCTM yearbook # 32(1970), p. 20]*VFR

I consider also seen the date given for the re~on that October 30. Some historians also interrogation whether or not this was in reality written by Franklin.

1744 In Euler’s absent letter of October 20, 1744, Euler announced that he had true discovered a simple curve that exhibited a part called a cusp of the support kind or a ramphoid from the Greek according to a bird’s beak. L’H^opital (1661-1704) is liable for defining these two types of cusps. In 1740, Jean-Paul de Gua de Malves (1713- 1785) published a ordeal that no algebraic curve could desire a cusp of the second charitable in [Gua de Malves 1740]. Euler was on friendly terms with Gua de Malves’ work and had initially accepted his consequence, but in 1744 he discovered that in that place was a subtle flaw in the supposed steadfast. In this letter, he wrote to Cramer that even in the fourth order there is a curved stripe of this kind, whose equation is, y4- 2xy2 + x2 = x3+ 4yx, that simplifies to y = x(1/2) +/- x(3/4)

*Ed Sandifer, How Euler Did It, MAA

1881 In a verbal expression to Newcomb dated Oct. 20, 1881, Sylvester writes, “Who is to exist the new superintendent of the Coast Survey?

Why should you not justify it to be known that you would take . the appointment supposing you would exist willing to do so!” Sylvester was the conspicuous British mathematician who served as the rudimentary chairman of the Department of Mathematics at the Johns Hopkins University (1876-1883). He returned to England in 1884 to employ the chair of Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. *THE CHARLES S. PElRCE-SIMON NEWCOMB CORRESPONDENCE

1958 Italy issued a impress to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the production of Evangelista Torricelli, mathematician and physicist. [Scott #754]. *VFR

1975 The Public Record service in London released information on the Colossus, unit of the ﬁrst programmable electronic digital computers. It was built in 1943 concerning work on cryptography. The Colossus machines were electronic computing devices used by British codebreakers to help read encrypted German messages for the time of *World* War II. They used void tubes (thermionic valves) to perform the calculations.

Colossus was designed ~ dint of. engineer Tommy Flowers with input from Harry Fensom, Allen Coombs, Sidney Broadhurst and William Chandler at the Post Office *Research* Station, Dollis Hill to interpret a problem posed by mathematician Max Newman at Bletchley Park. The type, Colossus Mark 1, was shown to subsist working in December 1943 and was operational at Bletchley Park ~ means of February 1944. An improved Colossus Mark 2 chief worked on 1 June 1944, uncorrupt in time for the Normandy Landings. Ten Colossi were in appliance by the end of the the last argument of kings. No information about the computer was released till this date. *Wik

1983, the longitudinal dimensions of the meter was redefined by the international body Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (GCPM) ~ dint of. a method to give greater faithfulness. Originally based on one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the equator, the meter was re-established for example the distance that light travels in a void in 1/299,792,458 of a other *TIS

2004 The First Ubuntu Linux Distribution Released. Ubuntu is a easy computer operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux. Its celebrity loosely translated from the Zulu appliance “humanity,” or “a person is a part only through other people.” Ubuntu is intended to prepare an up-to-date, stable operating universe for the average user, with a confirmed focus on usability and ease of inauguration. Ubuntu has been rated the principally popular Linux distribution for the desktop, claiming not fa from 30 percent of desktop Linux installations, according to the 2007 Desktop Linux Market measure and estimate . Ubuntu is open source and disinthrall. It is sponsored by Canonical Ltd, what one. is owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth.*CHM

BIRTHS 1616 Thomas Bartholin (20 Oct 1616; 4 Dec 1680) Danish anatomist and mathematician who was in the ~ place to describe fully the entire human enthusiastic system (1652). He was one of the earliest defenders of Harvey’s first view of the circulation of **blood**. He was a head of the mathematical faculty of the University of Copenhagen, 1647-49, and heap of skin and bones professor there, 1649-61. He published numerous company works on anatomy, physiology and healing art, (1645-74) and in 1658 a ill-defined work on pharmacology. In 1654, lengthwise with the rest of the therapeutic faculty at the university, Bartholin published word to the people on how to take **care** of themselves during the plague. King Christian V named Bartholin in the manner that his personal physician, with an occurring once a year salary, although Bartolin rarely had to deal by the king. *TIS

1632 Sir Christopher Wren (20 Oct 1632; 25 Feb 1723) Architect, astronomer, and geometer who was the greatest English designer of his time whose famous masterpiece is St. Paul’s Cathedral, amidst many other buildings __after__ London’s **Great** Fire of 1666. Wren well-informed scientific skills as an assistant to every eminent anatomist. Through astronomy, he developed skills in operating models, diagrams and charting that proved available when he entered architecture. He inventing a “encounter and sustain clock” similar to a modern barometer, renovated engraving methods, and helped develop a **lineage** transfusion technique. He was president of the Royal *Society* 1680-82. His scientific work was highly regarded by Sir Isaac Newton being of the kind which stated in the Principia. *TIS (I liking the message on his tomb in the Crypt of St. Pauls: Si monumentum requiris circumspice ….”Reader, whether or not you seek his monument, look around you.”

1863 William Henry Young (20 Oct 1863 in London, England – 7 July 1942 in Lausanne, Switzerland) discovered Lebesgue integration, independently if it were not that 2 years __after__ Lebesgue. He qualified by study Fourier series and orthogonal series in ~issimo.

1865 Aleksandr Petrovich Kotelnikov (20 Oct 1865 in Kazan, Russia – 6 March 1944 in Moscow, USSR) In 1927 he published undivided of his most important works, The Principle of Relativity and Lobachevsky’s Geometry. He in like manner worked on quaternions and applied them to mechanics and geometry. Among his other major pieces of work was to revise and correct the Complete Works of two mathematicians, Lobachevsky and Zhukovsky. He current many honours for his work, being named Honoured Scientist in 1934, at another time one year __before__ he died he was awarded the State Prize of the USSR. *SAU

1891 Sir James Chadwick (20 Oct 1891; 24 Jul 1974) English physicist who received the Nobel Prize for Physics (1935) for his discovery of the neutron. He carefully read at Cambridge, and in Berlin while burdened with Geiger, then worked at the Cavendish Laboratory through Rutherford, where he investigated the structure of the atom. He worked up~ the scattering of __alpha__ particles and up~ the body nuclear disintegration. By bombarding beryllium through __alpha__ particles, Chadwick discovered the neutron – a neutral particle in the atom’s core – for which he received the Nobel Prize by reason of Physics in 1935. In 1932, Chadwick coined the indicate “neutron,” which he described in one article in the journal Nature. He led the UK’s moil on the atomic bomb in WW II, and was knighted in 1945. *TIS

1904 Hans Lewy (October 20, 1904 – August 23, 1988) was an *American* mathematician, known for his act on partial differential equations and attached the theory of functions of several complex variables.*Wik

1914 R. H. Bing (October 20, 1914, Oakwood, Texas – April 28, 1986, Austin, Texas) was some *American* mathematician who worked mainly in the areas of geometric topology and continuum postulate. His first two names were fair-minded single letters that do not stand with a view to anything. Bing’s mathematical *research* was within a little exclusively in 3-manifold theory and in specific, the geometric topology of R3. The time Bing-*type* topology was coined to mark out the style of methods used ~ means of Bing.

Bing established his reputation soon on in 1946, soon __after__ completing his Ph.D. dissertation, by solving the Kline sphere designation problem. In 1948 he proved that the pseudo-arc is of the same nature throughout, contradicting a published but erroneous ‘testimony’ to the contrary. In 1951 he proved results touching the metrizability of topological spaces, including that which would later be called the Bing-Nagata-Smirnov metrization theorem.*Wik

DEATHS 1631 Michael Maestlin (30 September 1550, Göppingen – 20 October 1631, Tübingen) was a German astronomer and mathematician, known since being the mentor of Johannes Kepler.

Maestlin well-versed theology, mathematics, and astronomy/astrology at the Tübinger Stift in Tübingen, a metropolis in Württemberg. He graduated as Magister in 1571 and became in 1576 a Lutheran deacon in Backnang, continuing his studies in that place.

In 1580 he became a Professor of mathematics, highest at the University of Heidelberg, for this reason at the University of Tübingen to what he taught for 47 years from 1583. In 1582 Maestlin wrote a prevailing introduction to astronomy.

Among his students was Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Although he primarily taught the traditional geocentric Ptolemaic survey of the solar system, Maestlin was in like manner one of the first to accept and teach the heliocentric Copernican behold. Maestlin corresponded with Kepler frequently and played a sizable ~icipation in his adoption of the Copernican universe. Galileo Galilei’s adoption of heliocentrism was in addition attributed to Maestlin.

The first known forethought [3] of the reciprocal of the yellow ratio as a decimal of “from one place to another 0.6180340” was written in 1597 through Maestlin in a letter to Kepler.

He is too remembered for :

Catalogued the Pleiades clump on 24 December 1579. Eleven stars in the grow in bunches were recorded by Maestlin, and perchance as many as fourteen were observed.

Occultation of Mars by Venus on 13 October 1590, seen ~ dint of. Maestlin at Heidelberg. *Wik

1896 François-Félix Tisserand (13 Jan 1845, 20 Oct 1896) French astronomer whose 4-power textbook Traité de mécanique céleste (1889-96; “Treatise without ceasing Celestial Mechanics”) updated Pierre-Simon Laplace’s be. At age 28, he was named Director at Toulouse Observatory (1873-78). He went to Japan to notice the 1874 transit of Venus. The 83-cm spyglass he installed at the Toulouse Observatory in 1875 had a wooden base insufficiently stable for photographic toil, but he was able to employment it for observation of the satellites of Jupiter and of Saturn. From 1892 till his death he was director of the Paris Observatory, in which place he completed the major work, Catalogue photographique de la carte du ciel, and arranged for its publication.*TIS

1972 Harlow Shapley (2 Nov 1885, 20 Oct 1972) Astronomer, known in the same manner with “The Modern Copernicus,” who discovered the Sun’s locality in the galaxy. From 1914 to 1921 he was at Mt. Wilson Observatory, whither he calibrated Henrietta S. Leavitt’s revolution of time vs. luminosity relation for Cepheid fitful stars and used it to certify the distances of globular clusters. He boldly and correctly proclaimed that the globulars plan the Galaxy, and that the Galaxy is almost larger than was generally believed and centered thousands of diffusion of luminous rays years away in the direction of Sagittarius. In the soon 1920’s, Shapley entered a “**Great** Debate” with Heber D. Curtis. They truly argued throughout the “Scale of the Universe.”*TIS

1974 Harold Ruse graduated from Oxford and held a place at Edinburgh University. he later became a professor at Southampton and Leeds. He worked without interrupti~ Harmonic Spaces. He became Secretary of the EMS in 1930 and President in 1935. *SAU

1984 Paul A.M. Dirac (8 Aug 1902, 20 Oct 1984) English natural philosopher and mathematician who originated quantum mechanics and the spinning electron plan. In 1933 he shared the Nobel Prize instead of Physics with the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger.*TIS

1987 Andrey Nikolayevich Kolmogorov (25 Apr 1903, 20 Oct 1987) Russian mathematician whose basic postulates because probability theory that have continued to be an integral part of analysis. This toil had diverse applications such as his study of the action of planets (1954), or the tumultuous air flow from a jet weapon (1941). In topology, he investigated cohomology groups. He made a greater contribution to answering the probability ~icipation of Hilbert’s Sixth Problem, and completely resolved (1957) Hilbert’s Thirteenth Problem. Kolmogorov was smart in a project to provide peculiar education for gifted children, not simply by writing textbooks and in breeding them, but in expanding their interests to be not necessarily in mathematics, but with literature, music, and healthy activity of that kind as on hikes and expeditions. *TIS

Credits :

*CHM=Computer History Museum

*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts

*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar

*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie

*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History

*TIA = Today in Astronomy

*TIS= Today in Science History

*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA

*Wik = Wikipedia

*WM = Women of Mathematics, Grinstein & Campbell

NFL actor Draft has been in the information a lot recently because of the mournful death of his wife.

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